Terms of Reference: Images of Poverty and Inequality in Cambodia

Date of Publication: 12.09.2018


DVV International (DVV I) is the Institute for International Cooperation of the Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband e.V. (DVV), the German Adult Education Association. DVV represents the interests of the approximately 900 adult education centres (Volkshochschulen) and their state associations, the largest further education providers in Germany.

As the leading professional organisation in the field of adult education and development cooperation, DVV International has committed itself to supporting lifelong learning for more than 45 years. DVV International provides worldwide support for the establishment and development of sustainable structures for Youth and Adult Education.

The programme of DVV International is financed by Germany’s Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The current funding period is from 2018 to 2020.

The Project: Reaching the Marginalized; Voices of the poor

Poverty is becoming, more and more, a global issue: Traditionally, it affects whole countries and societies in the so called “global south”. However, we can observe a tendency: the gap between those privileged and those marginalized within countries and societies has increased enormously in recent years, leading to growing inequality. This challenge of poverty and inequality is one of the main focal areas for adult education globally. There are successful and sustainable efforts in our sector to help narrowing this gap and to give marginalized people the opportunity to participate in economic development.

In this project, a group of representatives of public authorities and non-governmental organisations from Middle East and South East Asia will discuss issues of poverty, inequality and the ways at demonstrating how adult education can contribute to better integrate the marginalized in a political, social and economic way and thereby to also raise awareness on their needs among the whole society.

Having deep, qualitative, understanding of the complex roots and manifestation of poverty and inequality will serve to produce a manual that demonstrates how collaboration of decision makers, civil society and development partners can contribute to make adult education approaches work to strengthen marginalized peoples. The manual aims at working as a lobbying instrument for all those who need professional support to better advocate the potential of adult education in this context and to inspire reflections among those members of the society who live in comparative wealth and who have simply no comprehension of the needs of the marginalized and how they can contribute to better their situation.

The objective of the study: Images of Poverty and Marginalization from different perspectives

The study aims at providing evidence based information about the status of the marginalized and their image in society. The study aims at taking different perspectives into consideration: the perspective of the poor and marginalized themselves and the perspective of comparably “wealthy” people in communities’. The results of this study will set the basis to prepare a guiding document that will be used to foster evidence-based discussions, about the issues of poverty and marginalization in Rural and Urban areas as well as ways of its reduction using adult education instruments within the expert group working on development of the Manual.

Scope of Work and guiding questions for the study

The selected Expert should conduct a desk top study and a case study in Cambodia. As thorough knowledge of both languages is essential to successfully conduct the study; interested consultants may apply for each country individually. It will be the responsibility of the Contracting Authority to warrant an alignment of methodological approaches.

The desk top study should comprise the following aspects:

  • Poverty and Inequality
    • Available data on poverty and inequality in Cambodia
    • Tendencies and development over the last decade
    • Perception of the main reasons for poverty and inequality from different perspectives
    • Specific Data for the target regions, if available
  • Needs assessment of possible interventions of ALE to narrow the gap and overcome  poverty and inequality

The case study should be implemented in one rural and one urban area in Cambodia, using participatory research approaches. It should cover the perspective of the marginalized people and the perspective of comparably “wealthy” people.

The case study is supposed to provide information on the following aspects:

  • Understanding of poverty from the perspective of the poor and wealthy people (perceptions and self-perceptions)
  • Understanding the different explanation patterns for poverty and inequality
  • Exploring the coping strategies of the poor
  • The role of ALE in poverty reduction
  • Analysing existing levels of access to ALE services and bottlenecks

Target group of the case study’s results

The target group of the case study will be members of one urban and one rural community in Cambodia. The community members should represent different groups of community including comparable poor and comparable wealthy/influential members. The results of the study will be used to foster discussions within two workshops; one in Jordan and one in Cambodia. The results of the study as well the results of the workshop discussions will serve as an evidence based foundation for the development of a Manual to advocate for the potential of ALE in supporting marginalized people.


The consultant can use a wide range of methodologies, including literature survey, online research, interviews and focus groups discussion. The methodology used, including the number of days should be outlined in the proposal. Using participatory approaches for the case study is mandatory.

Indicative Timetable

Step Timeline
Deadline for proposals 26th of October 2018
Candidate selection 19th  November 201
Final agreement and contract signing 2nd December, 2018
Implementation December 2018 – March, 2019
Final full report 29th of March 2019
Allocated budget up to 4,500 US$

Tasks of the expert

The consultant (for each country individually) will be requested to fulfil the following tasks:

  • Methodological design and planning of the study in communication with DVV International offices;
  • Desk Study of relevant documentation (Urban and Rural Poverty, Poverty causes, Non-Formal Education, Status of Inequality);
  • Design of data collection instruments for the field phase;
  • Prepare an Inception Report;
  • Conduct the field phase
  • Compile preliminary report, integrate comments, and finalize the report.
  • Possibly participate in the workshop and presentation of results of the study.


The following deliverables are expected for each region:

  • Inception report: The expert/ team of experts will present a report giving detailed information about their interpretation of the ToR, methods and specified questions. This report will be presented to DVV International, discussed and, if needed, amended. It forms a basis for further development of the detailed methodology.
  • Design of detailed study methodology: Considering the Terms of Reference and context of the country programme, timeframe, etc. This has to be approved before the expert commences the field work phase. It is understood that the review of secondary data may influence the design on the field work phase.
  • Draft study report: After the conclusion of the secondary data review and field work, the consultants are expected to analyse the data and come to conclusions and recommendations. These alongside the findings have to be presented as a first draft report which will be studied by DVV International and partners. DVV International will provide consultants with written feedback.
  • Final study report: The final report will take into account the comments on the draft report and all results and recommendations.
  • Optional: Presentation to wider stakeholder group: The consultants may be requested to present the final report to a wider stakeholder group.

The case study should be produced in English and submitted to DVV International electronically.

Qualification of expert

The expert(s) we are looking for should

  • have at least 5-year experience in the field of research on poverty (please, provide proof of this experience);
  • have experience in implementation of field studies/ interviews in margenalised communities using participatory approaches.
  • be able to demonstrate sound knowledge of research methods and instruments;
  • have experiences with stakeholder participation and transparent knowledge management;
  • analytical and writing skills;
  • have previous working experience in Southeast Asia;
  • fluency in Khmer and English;

Local experts are encouraged to apply for this study.

11.  Application

All candidates who would like to participate in the tender for conducting the outlined study should submit the following documents:

  1. CV(s) of person(s) involved in assignment (please use attached template)
  2. Technical proposal covering the following aspects (maximum of 8 pages):
    1. Show understanding of the task
    2. Methodological approach
    3. Work Plan / steps of implementation
    4. Consideration of specific requirements of the context of the study
    5. Internal Quality Management
  3. Financial proposal (please use attached template).

The offers must be sent until 17:00 (Local Time) October 26th 2018 to the following e-mail addresses:

DVV International, Ms Vanna Peou, Country Office Cambodia, No.106, St. 304, Sangkat Boeng Keng II, Khan Chamkar Morn, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, vannapeou@dvvcambodia.org

Late submissions will not be accepted.

Evaluation criteria of proposals

The proposals will be assessed according to the following criteria:

  • Qualification of Expert/ Team (counts one third) (based on criteria mentioned above);
  • Technical proposal (counts one third) (based on criteria mentioned above);
  • Financial proposal (counts one third) (best price-service relation).

Right of use

The Principal has the exclusive and unlimited right to use the results fulfilled by the contract. The transfer of this Right of Use is complete with the payment made to the Contractor. The Contractor has Right of Use permission strictly limited for personal non-commercial purposes. Transfer of the Right of Use to third parties is excluded.

Contractual Conditions

The legal basis for this contract is provided by the „General terms and conditions for the implementation of Services” (VOL/B). These general terms and conditions are not attached to this contract; however, an exemplary service contract is part of these Terms of Reference for perusal.

Request for clarification

If you should have questions concerning this tender, please send your questions to the above mentioned contact persons. The latest date for submitting questions is 11th October 2018. The answers to the questions will be published on our website (https://www.dvv-international.de/dvv-international/stellenangebote/) for all interested parties the following day.

Download Application Form